Orientation & Geography

Europe, Germany, Berlin

The Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz (English: Rosa Luxemburg Square) is a square in Berlin-Mitte, Germany. The square is dominated by the Volksb├╝hne and by the Karl-Liebknecht-Haus, the headquarters of the German Left Party. The party's predecessor, the Communist Party of Germany, opened its headquarters on the square in 1926. The square was previously named Babelsberger Platz (1907-1910) and B├╝lowplatz (1910-1933). In 1933, with the rise of the Third Reich, it was renamed Horst-Wessel-Platz (1933-1945) after National Socialist martyr Horst Wessel. Following the fall of Berlin and Soviet occupation, the square, then part of communist-controlled East Berlin, was renamed Liebknechtplatz (1945-1947) after German communist Karl Liebknecht. It was then renamed Luxemburgplatz (1947-1969) after communist leader Rosa Luxemburg, until it was given the name Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz by the SED regime in 1969. The square is noted as the scene of the murders of Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck, police captains who were the victims of a double homicide in 1931 at the hands of members of the Communist Party of Germany. A monument created by Hans Dammann commemorating Anlauf and Lenck was erected in the square in 1934, but was destroyed in 1950 by Erich Mielke, one of the murderers, who was by then a powerful man in East Germany.