Gustavianum is the former main building of Uppsala University, built 1622–1625 and named after King Gustavus Adolphus. Under the cupola is the theatrum anatomicum, the second oldest in the world added to the building in the mid 17th century by Olaus Rudbeck, professor of medicine and amateur architect, among other things.
Although still used for lectures and conferences, most of Gustavianum functions as a museum (Museum Gustavianum), including exhibitions of objects from the university collections of Classical, Egyptian and Nordic antiquities, as well as an exhibition on the history of science and the history of Uppsala University. The Augsburg art cabinet, the best preserved of the Kunstschränke made by Philipp Hainhofer, which was given to Gustavus Adolphus in 1632 by the City of Augsburg, is on display in the Gustavianum.
The Museum has an excellent science collection of very old telescopes of Celsius and other astronomers, the oldest achromatic telescope, a book with Copernicus notes on solar eclipses, an important Lineus exhibition and currently an exhibition of the oldest known astronomical instrument and computer, the Antikythera Mechanism.