Córdoba (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkorðoβa]; also Cordova) is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. An Iberian and Roman city in ancient times. Also in the Middle Ages it was capital of an Islamic caliphate.
The old town contains many impressive architectural reminders of when Corduba, the capital of Hispania Ulterior during the Roman Republic and capital of Hispania Baetica during the Roman Empire; and Qurṭuba (قرطبة) the capital of the Caliphate of Córdoba, governed almost all of the Iberian peninsula.
It has been estimated that in the 10th century and beginning of the 11th century, Córdoba was the most populous city in the world, and during these centuries became the intellectual center of Europe. Today it is a moderately-sized modern city; its population in 2008 was 325,453.